Line of sight (LoS) is a type of propagation that can transmit and receive data only where transmit and receive stations are in view of each other without any sort of an obstacle between them. FM radio, microwave and satellite transmission are examples of line-of-sight communication.

Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) is a term often used in radio communications to describe a radio channel or link where there is no visual line of sight (LOS) between the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna. In this context LOS is taken.

These tend to be lower frequency signals that have the ability to pennetrate barriers or diffract and bend around objects.

In radio communication, an omnidirectional antenna is a class of antenna which radiates equal radio power in all directions perpendicular to an axis, with power varying with angle to the axis, declining to zero on the axis. When graphed in three dimensions this radiation pattern is often described as doughnut-shaped.

A Yagi–Uda antenna, commonly known as a Yagi antenna, is a directional antenna consisting of multiple parallel elements in a line, usually half-wave dipoles made of metal rods.

A patch antenna is a type of radio antenna with a low profile, which can be mounted on a flat surface. It consists of a flat rectangular sheet or “patch” of metal, mounted over a larger sheet of metal called a ground plane.

In radio-frequency engineering, a transmission line is a specialized cable or other structure designed to conduct alternating current of radio frequency, that is, currents with a frequency high enough that their wave nature must be taken into account.

In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a two-port circuit to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input to the output port by adding energy converted from some power supply to the signal.

The Focal Length (FL) is the distance from the feed horn to the centre of the antenna.

In a radio antenna pattern, the half power beam width is the angle between the half-power points of the main lobe, when referenced to the peak effective radiated power of the main lobe. See beam diameter. Beamwidth is usually but not always expressed in degrees and for the horizontal plane.

In telecommunication, the term front-to-back ratio can mean: The ratio of power gain between the front and rear of a directional antenna. Ratio of signal strength transmitted in a forward direction to that transmitted in a backward direction.

In radio engineering and telecommunications, standing wave ratio is a measure of impedance matching of loads to the characteristic impedance of a transmission line or waveguide.

In telecommunications, return loss is the loss of power in the signal returned/reflected by a discontinuity in a transmission line or optical fiber. This discontinuity can be a mismatch with the terminating load or with a device inserted in the line.

Diversity reception in which beyond-the-horizon tropospheric scatter signals are received at slightly different angles, equivalent to paths through different scatter volumes in the troposphere.

Antenna diversity, also known as space diversity or spatial diversity, is any one of several wireless diversity schemes that uses two or more antennas to improve the quality and reliability of a wireless link.

Path loss, or path attenuation, is the reduction in power density of an electromagnetic wave as it propagates through space. Path loss is a major component in the analysis and design of the link budget of a telecommunication system. This term is commonly used in wireless communications and signal propagation.

In an electrical or electronic circuit or power system part of the energy in play is dissipated by unwanted effects, including energy lost by unwanted heating of resistive components (electricity is also used for the intention of heating, which is not a loss), the effect of parasitic elements (resistance, capacitance, and inductance), skin effect, losses in the windings and cores of transformers due to resistive heating and magnetic losses caused by eddy currents, hysteresis, unwanted radiation, dielectric loss, corona discharge, and other effects.

High performance microwave antenna shrouds are added to reduce the sidelobe level being radiated from the antenna.

Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) are arrays of receivers placed at the focus of the optical system in a radio-telescope. The optical system may be a reflector or a lens.

A radome is a weaterproof structure or membrane that encloses the reflector face to protect the antenna feed from wind, snow, ice and rain. The radome is constructed of material that minimally attenuates the electromagnetic signal transmitted or received by the antenna, effectively transparent to radio waves.

A planar radome (acronym for radar dome) is made of a hydrophonic coatred flexible membrane that has properties that are electrically invisible while protecting the antennas feed from water, ice, snow, sleet and rain. These planar membrane radomes are transparent in electromagnetic spectrum resulting in little to no loss.

A pipe that is mechanically attached to a tower or other antenna supporting structure that allows for an antenna to be securely mounted too.

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A parabolic grid is a parabolic reflector constructed of tubular elements in place of a solid parabolic sheet stock. Parabolic grids are designed to negate the wind forces that a solid parabolic antenna encounter under heavy/moderate wind conditions. In these conditions a solid parabolic can move off path or out of alignment which will degrade or drop the RF signal. A parabolic grid is constructed of tubular elements the wind forces are reduced under heavy wind conditions buy allowing the wind to easily pass through the reflector.

A standard parabolic antenna is an antenna that uses a parabolic reflector, which has a curved surface with the cross-sectional shape of a parabola, to direct the radio waves. The most common form is shaped like a dish and is popularly called a dish antenna or parabolic dish.

Shrouds are added to parabolic microwave antennas to reduce the sidelobe level being radiated. They appear to look like “drums” or a “tunnel” that has a diameter about the same as the parabolic antenna and is bolted on to the surface.

The ultra high performance antenna is required on paths that require the maximum possible interference reduction off the main beam to minimize frequency congestion. … These antennas utilize a specially designed and tuned feed system that provides for cross polarization discrimination of about 40 dB

Horn lens waveguide antennas are used in a wide variety of applications due to their high power handling capability, low loss, high directivity, and near constant electrical performance across a broad-bandwidth.

A horn antenna or microwave horn is an antenna that consists of a flaring metal waveguide shaped like a horn to direct radio waves in a beam…. The usable bandwidth of horn antennas is typically of the order of 10:1, and can be up to 20:1 (for example allowing it to operate from 1 GHz to 20 GHz).

A base station antenna is the interface between wireless mobile devices. The base station, a wireless system, uses microwave radio communication.

In telecommunications and radar, a Cassegrain antenna is a parabolic antenna in which the feed antenna is mounted at or behind the surface of the concave main parabolic reflector dish and is aimed at a smaller convex secondary reflector suspended in front of the primary reflector

In telecommunications, a point-to-point connection refers to a communications connection between two communication endpoints or nodes. An example is a telephone call, in which one telephone is connected with one other, and what is said by one caller can only be heard by the other.

In telecommunications, point-to-multipoint communication is communication which is accomplished via a distinct type of one-to-many connection, providing multiple paths from a single location to multiple locations.

In telecommunications, point-to-multipoint communication is communication which is accomplished via a distinct type of one-to-many connection, providing multiple paths from a single location to multiple locations.

A local area network is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building. By contrast, a wide area network not only covers a larger geographic distance, but also generally involves leased telecommunication circuits.

Local Multipoint Distribution Service is a broadband wireless access technology originally designed for digital television transmission. It was conceived as a fixed wireless, point-to-multipoint technology for utilization in the last mile.

Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service, formerly known as Broadband Radio Service and also known as Wireless Cable, is a wireless telecommunications technology, used for general-purpose broadband networking or, more commonly, as an alternative method of cable television programming reception.

A wireless LAN is a wireless computer network that links two or more devices using wireless communication to form a local area network within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, campus, or office building.

In 1997, the U.S. opened the frequency bands 24.25-24.45 GHz and 25.05-25.25 GHz to accommodate the Digital Electronic Message Service (DEMS) which was being moved out of the 18 GHz band.

In telecommunications, Long-Term Evolution is a standard for wireless broadband communication for mobile devices and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies. It increases the capacity and speed using a different radio interface together with core network improvements.

The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard.

In telecommunication and radio communication, spread-spectrum techniques are methods by which a signal generated with a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth

The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has three primary frequency bands designated for unlicensed operation. Unlicensed means the operator of the radios does not need to file directly with the FCC to use the radio. The three frequency bands used for this in the U.S. are the 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz

4G is the fourth generation of broadband cellular network technology, succeeding 3G. A 4G system must provide capabilities defined by ITU in IMT Advanced.

5G is the fifth generation wireless technology for digital cellular networks that began wide deployment in 2019. As with previous standards, the covered areas are divided into regions called “cells”, serviced by individual antennas

Extremely high frequency is the International Telecommunication Union designation for the band of radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz. It lies between the super high frequency band, and the far infrared band, the lower part of which is the terahertz band.

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency.

The megahertz, abbreviated MHz, is a unit of alternating current (AC) or electromagnetic (EM) wave frequency equal to one million hertz (1,000,000 Hz). The megahertz is commonly used to express microprocessor clock speed.

Short for gigahertz, GHz is a unit of measurement for AC (alternating current) or EM (electromagnetic) wave frequencies equal to 1,000,000,000 (one billion) Hz (hertz). 2. When referring to a computer processor or CPU, GHz is a clock frequency, also known as a clock rate or clock speed, representing a cycle of time.

The invention of radio communication, although generally attributed to Guglielmo Marconi in … radio communication was developed Lodge’s lecture would become the focus of priority disputes over who invented wireless telegraphy (radio).

In the field of antenna design the term radiation or directional pattern (or antenna pattern or far-field pattern) refers to the directional (angular) dependence of the strength of the radio waves from the antenna or other source.

DPE is the abbreviation for Directional Pattern Envelope.

RPE is the abbreviation for Radiation Pattern Envelope.

The NSMA (National Spectrum Management Association is a voluntary international association of microwave radio/wireless and satellite frequency coordinators, licensees, manufacturers and regulators.

In the field of antenna design the term radiation pattern (or antenna pattern or far-field pattern) refers to the directional (angular) dependence of the strength of the radio waves from the antenna or other source.

In the field of antenna design the term polar pattern (or antenna pattern or far-field pattern) refers to the directional (circular) dependence of the strength of the radio waves from the antenna or other source.

Ice Bridges, also known as Waveguide Bridges, are sections of metal designed and installed above transmission cables to protect them from falling ice. They generally run between the tower and the building in which the equipment is housed.

A passive repeater or passive radio link deflection, is a reflective or sometimes refractive panel or other object that assists in closing a radio or microwave link, in places where an obstacle in the signal path blocks any direct, line of sight communication.

An active repeater consists of an antenna or several antennas, a radio receiver, a radio transmitter, equipment for remote control of repeater operation, and a power supply. The active repeater usually uses solid-state devices; vacuum tubes are used less frequently.

In point to point and multi-point communications a site is where the RF equipment is set-up for operation.

A microwave communications channel between two stations with directive antennas that are aimed at each other

A microwave link is a communications system that uses a beam of radio waves in the microwave frequency range to transmit video, audio, or data between two locations, which can be from just a few feet or meters to several miles or kilometers apart.

The invention of radio communication, generally attributed to Guglielmo Marconi in the 1890s, spanned many decades, from theoretical underpinnings, through proof of the phenomenon’s existence, development of technical means, to its final use in signalling.

A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting the transmission of energy to one direction.

Elliptical waveguide is constructed of longitudinally continuous seam welded, highly conductive copper tube, corrugated and precision formed into an elliptical cross section. It is manufactured in continuous lengths using a special seam welding process.

Coaxial cable, or coax is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. Many coaxial cables also have an insulating outer sheath or jacket.

Rigid Waveguides. Quantity. Rigid Rectangular Waveguides. Used in satcom, VSAT and telecom applications that carry high frequency radio signals. Copper waveguide with brass flanges or optional aluminium.

A rectangular waveguide is a hollow metallic tube with a rectangular cross section. The conducting walls of the waveguide confine the electromagnetic fields and thereby guide the electromagnetic wave. The rectangular waveguide is basically characterized by its dimensions i.e., length a and breadth b.

A waveguide is a hollow metal tube that transmits electromagnetic energy from one place to another. A waveguide with a circular cross-section is called as Circular Waveguide. It supports both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. TE11 is the dominant mode in a circular waveguide i.e., a signal in this mode propagates with the minimum degradation.

A microwave link is a communications system that uses a beam of radio waves in the microwave frequency range to transmit information between two fixed locations on the earth. … They are crucial to many forms of communication and impact a broad range of industries.

An azimuth is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system. The vector from an observer to a point of interest is projected perpendicularly onto a reference plane; the angle between the projected vector and a reference vector on the reference plane is called the azimuth

The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth’s sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface.

Rain fade refers primarily to the absorption of a microwave radio frequency signal by atmospheric rain, snow, or ice, and losses which are especially prevalent at frequencies above 11 GHz. It also refers to the degradation of a signal caused by the electromagnetic interference of the leading edge of a storm front.

Recently, the longest microwave link (189 km) ever turned up in a public mobile phone network went live in Tonga. It’s part of operator Digicel’s Pacific network.

Microwave absorbers are a kind of material that can effectively absorb incident microwave energy to make objects invisible to radar; therefore they are commonly used in aircraft cloaking and warship stealth. … “Usually the thickness of conventional radar absorbers is a quarter the wavelength of the incident microwave.

In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium. For instance, dark glasses attenuate sunlight, lead attenuates X-rays, and water and air attenuate both light and sound at variable attenuation rates.

A Gabriel antenna engineered to reduce weight and cost. Gabriel’s QuickFire parabolic antennas are engineered to reduce cost and weight from the antenna without sacrificing any of the traditional mechanical qualities found on a typical carrier grade antenna.

A multibeam antenna (MBA) may be defined as an antenna with the ability to generate multiple independent beams simultaneously from a single aperture.

Class A devices are intended for industrial environments, while Class B devices are intended for residential use. Depending on its classification, the FCC requires specific language to be included in the instruction manual. Refer to U.S.F.C.C. CFR 47 – Part 101.115

Federal Communications Commission, FCC(noun) an independent government agency that regulates interstate and international communications by radio and television and wire and cable and satellite.

The European Telecommunications Standards Institute is an independent, not-for-profit, standardization organization in the telecommunications industry in Europe, headquartered in Sophia-Antipolis, France, with worldwide projection.

CE marking is a certification mark that indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Economic Area. The CE marking is also found on products sold outside the EEA that have been manufactured to EEA standards

A cosecant squared antenna, sometimes known as a constant height pattern, is a modified form of parabolic reflector used in some radar systems. … The name refers to the fact that the amount of energy returned from a target drops off with the square of the cosecant of the angle between the radar and the target.

In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna.

Horizontal polarisation: This form of antenna polarisation has horizontal elements. It picks up and radiates horizontally polarised signals, i.e. electromagnetic waves with the electric field in the horizontal plane. … In this way both vertical and horizontally polarised antennas are able to receive the signal.

Vertical polarisation: This form of antenna is typified by the vertical elements within the antenna. It could be a single vertical element. One of the reasons for using vertical polarisation is that antennas comprising of a single vertical element can radiate equally around it in the horizontal plane.

Co-Polarization is defined as the polarization the antenna was meant to radiate, while Cross-Polarization is defined as its orthogonal pair. A purely polarized antenna will have low cross polarized radiation. A measure of how purely polarized an antenna is, is the cross polarization level.

A single polarized antenna is one that responds only to one orientation of polarization – either horizontal or vertical. … A dual polarized antenna, however, can respond to both horizontally and vertically polarized radio waves simultaneously.

A single polarized antenna is one that responds only to one orientation of polarization – either horizontal or vertical. … A dual polarized antenna, however, can respond to both horizontally and vertically polarized radio waves simultaneously.

HH – for horizontal transmit and horizontal receive,(HH) VV – for vertical transmit and vertical receive,(VV) HV – for horizontal transmit and vertical receive(HV), and. VH – for vertical transmit and horizontal receive(VH).

A strut is used to stiffen an antenna on the tower by bracing the antenna back to the tower or parapet. This bracing supports the antenna in high wind conditions that could blow the antenna off path. Also called a wind brace.

A wind brace is used to stiffen an antenna on the tower by bracing the antenna back to the tower or parapet. This bracing supports the antenna in high wind conditions that could blow the antenna off path. Also called a strut.

In a radio antenna, the feed line (feedline), or feeder, is the cable or other transmission line that connects the antenna with the radio transmitter or receiver. In a transmitting antenna, it feeds the radio frequency (RF) current from the transmitter to the antenna, where it is radiated as radio waves.

A buttonhook is a waveguide bend feed assembly that reflects a shepherds hook.

Dual band antennas operate on two bands or frequencies (similar to radio stations) and can either work on these different frequencies one at a time or simultaneously, depending on the capabilities of the individual antenna.

In antenna theory, a phased array usually means an electronically scanned array, a computer-controlled array of antennas which creates a beam of radio waves that can be electronically steered to point in different directions without moving the antennas.

A panel antenna, in its simplest form, consists of a dipole placed ahead of a flat-panel reflector.

A parabolic grid feed requires that the feed dipoles are aligned with the reflectors tubes. In the case of a vertically polarized configuration the feed reflectors or dipoles should align with the vertical reflector elements. To change to a horizontal polarization the reflector will need to rotate 90° so that the reflector elements are in the horizontal position and the feed dipoles are in a horizontal alignment.

The antennas feed can be rotated 90° to obtain a vertical or horizontal polarization. This can be obtained from the rear of the antenna or in the reflectors face prior to the installation of the antenna. Not all antenna models have the same adjustment procedure. The installer should refer to the installation instruction prior to assembling the antenna.

Microwave antennas are typically designed to meet wind conditions of up to 201 kmh / 125 mph while the Gabriel Severe Environment models are engineered to handle your specific sites environmental operational and survival requirements for winds of 255 kmh / 150 mph and 322 kmh / 200 mph.

An Orthomode Transducer (OMT) is a 3 port waveguide component that is used to separate Horizontally and the Vertically polarized signals from a circular polarized signal or, vice versa, i.e., combine Horizontally and Vertically polarized signals in to a circularly or elliptically polarized signal.